TV video about our Route and fiesta (galician
and spanish language)
ROUTE , WATER: VITAL RESOURCE
a) Election of a trekking route
b) Importance of the water
b) Introduction to the Botany
c) Use of the dichotomic key
Properties. Uses consumptive and not
b) Natural purification of water
c) Main points of consumption of the water
a) The hydrological cycle
b) Riverside vegetation
a) Energetic uses of water. Renewable and not
b) Options of reception of the water:
a) Geology notions
b) Fish and other animals
a) How a water mill works
b) How waters are contaminated
b) Autochthonous species, alócthonous and
Parrish A Parte
a) Union of two rivers.
Recreation area. Geologic fold
a) Administration of the water resources at
Nail dicotomic-clasification of plants
Election of a Trekking Route
The trekking routes are a popular
activity, affordable to any person. Their main purpose is to
enjoy the observation of nature. It is a popular sport that only
requires a small physical effort and sense of orientation.It's
objective is to foment the contact with t nature and the respect
towards environment, valuing all the resources that the earth
Route used for the realization of outdoor
activities. It is the perfect resource for the environmental
interpretation and it incorporates
the component of identification of the space that we follow ,
with special attention to the flora, the fauna, the combined
landscape that we observe, and to the effects of the human
being's activities in the natural means, cultural features and
Through this activity you can to develop the
knowledge and the use of the natural environment that surrounds
us. This unit promotes among other activities, a trekking
itinerary that transports us to a mean next one to the human
being but that it conserve an ecological and cultural value
worthy of being known and preserved.
In the I.E.S.
A Pinguela got prepared this unit
that tries to serve as a guide for the realization of a trekking
route from the Parque de los Condes, located in the center of
Monforte, to the Parish of A Parte following the course of the
river Cabe that takes us through parks, old mills, important
samples of our architecture and patrimony... in an environment
where it is still possible to enjoy the Galician autochthonous
Design of the activity
The activity is arranged in sequence to the
students of 1º of BAC, being able to adapt to students of other
courses of the BAC or High School, diminishing or increasing the
contents according to the level to which we go. In the activity
that is described you can contemplate:
- To know the main uses of water
in our society.
- To differenciate between
consumptive and not consumptive use of
- To know the main sources of
contamination of water.
- To bring the student to the
natural means, making them sensitive to the environmental
problems and motivating them to protect the
- To observe the different
traditional ways of energy that are obtained and their evolution
- To gain knowledge of the renewable
and not renewable energy sources.
- To identify the different
autochthonous species and to differentiate them of those
that are not autochthonous.
-To value the repercussions that
human activities have on the environment and to become
aware of the necessity of a
- Composition, structures and chemical
properties of water.
- Water as an element that configures the
- The natural cycle of water.
- Sources and uses of water.
- Contamination of water.
- Renewable and nonrenewable energy.
- Knowledge of the botanical and faunal
varieties of the area where the activity is developed.
- Evaluation of the environmental impact
of human activities in the
- To observe the environment to see where
placesthere is water.
- To interpret words related with Botany.
- To identify the main characteristics of the
- To find, from of the delivered material,
the vegetable species and indicated animals.
- To learn how to manage a dichotomic key.
- To know how to work a mill.
- To manage orientation systems and to
identify the most frequent codes used in the maps.
- To make people aware of the importance of
water in daily life and the environmental cost that it supposes.
-To consider that water is an irreplaceable
resource for the human beings.
-To consider that people are part
of nature and they influence on it.
- To foment a reflexive or critic attitude on
the use and yield of the renewable energy sources as alternative
to those non renewable.
- To awaken curiosity torwards the
environment that surrounds us.
- To forment respect for the rules settled
down in the development of the activities in the natural
- To cooperate and to work in groups, so that
students are implied in the common objective.
DEVELOP OF THE ACTIVITY
Starting point / arrival: the route has its
starting and arrival point the Parque de los Condes (Monforte de
Lemos) arriving at the Parish of A
Longitude: 20 km.
Duration: 4:30 hours.
Time: Any time of the year but better in
Spring or Autumn.
maintenance: the route is signalled with red and/or yellow
marks. This signaling can consist on informative panels or signs
on posts of light, walls or stones.
Documentation: with the explanatory
pamphlet of the route a map is provided with the journey to
continue and a notebook with the characteristic species of trees
of the area and the games that are developed in it.
Recommendations: appropriate and
comfortable clothes / sport footwear / notebook of notes /
pamphlet - guides / water / camera
The activity consists in two phases:
1-Visit to the Botanical Garden with the
explanation of the most representative species in the
environment and the realization of some game related to the
2 - Journey through the riverside of the
river Cabe. You try to reinforce in the students the capacity of
observation of the nature, that they take conscience of the
importance of water in our life and its different uses,
that they know the trees, bushes and animals tipical of
On the other hand the students will see the
changes and uses that the human being takes from the
Stop 1: Botanical
garden of A Pinguela
-Duration of the activity
Located in the Botanical Garden of the IES
Pinguela, a small description will be given of how the idea of
of this garden was built, of the species that are in it, as well
as some small botany terms to begin the children in the
knowledge of the species and characteristic that surround us,
distinguishing among the terms tree, bush, perennial leaf,
deciduouss leaf, distinction between flowers and fruits, medical
The Botanical Garden of the IES A Pinguela
was opened in 1987 after a hard work on the stony land that
there was. At the present time there are more than 200 species
of trees and bushes, among the representation of all the
autochthonous species and most of the plants that we can find in
gardens and private houses. Students, parents and other
collaborators help us to get them.
During the course 1999-2000 with the economic
contribution of the program Voice Nature material was bought to
identify species and make situation panels .
-Basic terms used in Botany:
- Tree: is a woody and vivacious
plants that reaches at least 5 meters
high, deciduous or perennial leafs and with a main trunk that
ramifies at certain distance from the floor.
- Bush: is a woody plant of medium size,
less than 5 meters high,deciduous or
perennial leafs , with the shaft ramified at level of the floor
and without a preponderant trunk.
- Deciduous leaf trees: they usually lose
the leaves in the season when their production is limited due to
environmental factors such as low
temperatures or lack of hydro- resources. Before losing the
leaves they recover most of the starch and other substances. In
this way they don't invest resources on maintaining not very
functional structures during a certain period, forming them
again, when the environmental conditions are more favorable,
starting from the energy that they obtain with the reservations
of starch of branches, trunk and roots.
The plants serve like refuge for the animals,
from very small insects until big mammals. The flowers, seeds,
nuts and leaves wich are produced
the food sources that allow animals to live in the forest.
Plants give the humans beings many
important medicines, for example, the yew tree that before was
considered as “waste wood”, contains a substance called taxol
that helps in the fight of certain cancer types.
The flowers can be found in all the types of
plants above although in the trees they flourish discreetly and
frequently they are not observed. Many insects depend on the
nectar, the same thing that many flowers depend on the insects
so that the pollination take place.
The flowers that are pollinated by insects
generally have brilliant colors and they are fragrant, two
characteristics that warn polinizadores
about their presence. Insects are not interested in transporting
the pollen from a plant to another but they are attracted by the
nectar that is inside the flowers and while they feed from
it the pollen sticks to the body of
the insects, they also deposit grains of pollen from other
flowers. The most common polinizadores are bees, wasps,
butterflies, scarabs, moths and flies. This way the success and
the diversity of the plants that flourish is partly due to
insects that are much more effective polinizadores than the
wind. The enormous variety in ways and colors of the flowers are
the result of the competition among species to get the attention
of the polinizadores.
Most of the species of trees are
pollinated by the wind and their flowers are located in the
hight and frequently they do not even look like them, because
they form long structures pending called catkins. The plants
pollinated by the wind have separate masculine and feminine
The seeds, nuts and fruits are the main food
source for many animals (rodents, for example, store big
quantities of seeds every autumn).
In most of the species
plants have developed a variety of ways to distribute
their seeds, some simply fall to the floor, others are taken by
the wind due to their small and delicate "wings", others they
move on water, and others are locked in fruits and they have to
survive the trip through the digestive system of the animal
before they can germinate.
It is important that the seeds are spread far
from the plant that gave them their origin it is almost
impossible that a new seedling can grow under an established old
plant. If in a place a great quantity of seeds falls instead of
being spread, there is a bigger probability of
attracting "predator of seeds",
mammals that consume the whole seed avoiding their germination.
All the seeds are an important food source
for animals. In many trees and bushes, they remain inside fleshy
fruits and they usually have bright colors so they are highly
visible for the mammals and birds.
The purpose is to attract animals that eat up the fruit and then
they disperse its seeds. Plants don't need
that their immature fruits are consumed, because of their
seeds are still immature and, therefore, unable to germinate and
to form new plants. There are usually
a succession of signs that indicates, with variations in the
color and the scent, the state of maturity of the fruit. For
example, most of the berries have a dark green colour that then
gradually get dark until ending up being red or purple.
In the tropical rainy forests, the
availabitily of fruits is relatively constant during the whole
year. The fruits end up constituting until more than 50% of the
diet of a great proportion of birds, mammals, reptiles and
tropical insects, and even of some fish. As the birds have the
senses of smell and taste relatively not very
developed , the fruits don't have to
develop a sweet flavor or scent to attract them.
All the coniferous ones have two classes of
cones: the seed cones (feminine) and the cones of pollen
(masculine). The seed cones are much more common to see and they
provide seeds that it is an important source of foods for
squirrels and birds. The cones of pollen are much smaller, and
they dry off in the spring as soon as they liberate their
pollen. All these cones liberate so much pollen that you can
frequently observe like a yellow cloud or a layer in the surface
of the lagoons. These clouds are composed by millions of
microscopic grains of pollen, and it is possible to determine
the plant species the grain of pollen comes from.
Trees that we will find in the route “The Mills”
This is a DICHOTOMIC KEY,
that means that in each observation two ways are given to
choose, however, in some of them three or more can arise. It is
a work that tries to facilitate the identification of the
arboreal species living in our community.
To begin with the point
1. You will have to choose the
way that presents the biggest coincidences with the tree that
you are observing and to continue until ending up identifying
it. The terms that appear underlined are in the glossary that
appears in the final part of the key, with the purpose of
helping as much as possible in the understanding of the terms
IN ENGLISH THE NAME APPEARS IN CAPITALS
LETTERS , in italic the scientific
name and in normal typeface the Galician name
1 – You observe the leaves and notice the
- leaves in needle or scale form (narrow limbo of less than 5
mm of width). Go to the (2).
- leaves of wide and flat limbo, always much bigger than the 5
mm. Go to the (3).
Notice if the needles or flakes are wrapped by a sheath in the
needles in groups of 2 united by a sheath in the base. ...
MARINE, REDDISH, RESIN OR GALICIAN PINE.
Pinus pinaster, marine Pinus. Brave
of 3 in 3 needles for sheath... PINE DE MONTERREY.
Famous Piñeiro or American Piñeiro.
You investigate if the leaf is simple or compound, for that you
have to realize if it has asylum yolk in the base of the foliolo:
it doesn't have asylum yolk in the base of the foliolo; leaf
composed by several foliolos. Go to the (4)
it has asylum yolk in the base of each petiole; single leaves.
Go to the (6)
You observe the border of the foliolos and the size of the
5 to 9 foliolos of whole borders, the terminal with more size
that the other ones... WALNUT.
Nogueira ou noceda.
foliolos prepared in fan.... INDIAN CHESTNUT
TREE . Aesculus
Castiñeiro de Indias.
You observe if the petioles of the follicles are sessiles
(seated) or peciolados:
sawed border of 5 to 11 foliolos, the leaves to flatten them
have a strong scent... ELDER.
Sabugueiro or bieteiro.
sessiles (seated) and from 13 to 15 jagged foliolos in the whole
border, blackish yolks. Fruit formed by a sámara.....
Fraxinus angustifolia. Freixo, freixa.
You observe the border of the leaves:
lobe leaves .... OAKS.
Genus Quercus. Go to the (19).
leaves without lobes or cracked leaves. Go to the (7).
It revises the trunk and the branches to see if it has thorns:
tree with thorns. Go to the (8)
tree without thorns. Go to the (9)
You look at the leaves:
deeply cracked leaves... HAWTHORN, WHITE
Espiño branco (estripeiro).
leaves without fissures.... BLACKTHORN.
You flattena a leaf with the hand and smell it:
aromatic leaves. Go to the (10).
non aromatic leaves. Go to the (11).
10.- You try to
identify the scent:
to laurel.... LAUREL. Laurus nobilis.
it doesn't have these characteristics. The tree may not figure
in this guide or some observation was incorrect.
11.- Notice the
border and the longitude of the leaf:
jagged and big leaves of around 20 cm, of bright green colour
(hairless) for the sheaf... CHESTNUT TREE.
jagged leaves of about 10 cm long, brilliant green right face.
Prunus avium. Cerdeira.
- jagged leaves of less than 10 cm long, dark green right face.
CHERRY TREE OF CLUSTER.
12.- You observe
the shell of the tree:
white shell. Go to the (13).
non white shell. Go to the (14).
13.- Notice if in
the trunk there are lenticelas:
with lenticelas, sawed rhomboid leaves......
POPLAR, WHITE POPLAR. Populus dawn.
Chopo or alamo branco.
without lenticelas in the trunk, the shell comes out in
horizontal ribbons, doubly sawed leaves...
BIRCH. Betula dawn.
- without lenticelas in the trunk, without furrows or showy
14.- Notice if the
leaves are alternating or opposed:
opposed leaves.... MAPLE, MAPLE WHITE, FALSE
leaves.... BANANA DE LONDON. HYBRID
PLATANUS, Platanus vulgaris, Platanus occidentalis, Platanus
acerifolia. Shade banana or of walk.
15.- You observe
the border of the leaves:
jagged and sawed embroider. Go to the (16).
neither jagged neither sawed embroider. Go to the (18).
16.- Notice in if
the border is sawed or doubly sawed and according with the
station you try to locate some fruit:
round, doubly sawed leaves, with a tip in the apex, the fruit is
a hazelnut.... HAZEL TREE. Corylus
countersinks. Abeleira ou abelaira.
heart-shaped leaf that finishes in a tip in the apex, the border
of the leaf is sawed, the fruits are kind of pellets.... LINDEN.
Tilia sp. Tilia cordata.
17.- You press a
leaf between two fingers:
rounded and doubly jagged leaves, a little sticky, it has kind
of pineapples that are hung from one year to other...
Glutinous Alnus. Ameneiro ou amieiro.
jagged leaves, make rough to the tact and bark of the cracked
tree forming ribs. ELM TREE, NEGRILLO. Ulmus
minor. Elm tree
18.- Notice the
back of the leaf:
lengthen-lanceoladas leaves and whitish for the back....
SALLOW, Salix sp. Salix caprea.
it doesn't have these characteristics. The tree doesn't figure
in this guide or some observation was incorrect.
Quercus. You observe the peduncle of the acorn:
hanging peduncle. Trees up to 40 meters.
Yellowish Flores... OAK.
Quercus pedunculata. Carballo.
rigid and tomentoso peduncle. It prefers the mountain....
REBOLLO, MELOJO, OAK NEGRAL. Quercus
Trees that appear in the route and they are
named in the key.
tree, it can be up to 30 m., it has the very open and faced
branches, with the flat and grizzly bark, and wide top. The
branches when becoming old the same as the trunk (grey) become
cracked and scaly, coming off in badges.
leaf . Big (8-15 cm.), simple and faced with opposed
disposition, they are clapped with 3-5 lobes put until half of
the leaf, the borders are jagged and unequal, they have a long
reddish petiole 5-15 cm., long and they don't have “estípulas”.
The face is dark green and the back it is clearer with
pubescence in the very marked nerves.
Flowers.- hermaphrodites or unisexual regular
flowers, of yellow-greenish color in hanging clusters, they
leave at the same time or a little after the leaves, they have a
long end and a wrapped up one floral double, 5 free petals and 5
free sepals that alternate with the petals and have 8 stamens.
It flourishes in April and May.
Habitat and applications.-
It lives in humid and deep places, in the north of Spain and
Portugal and we can find it above the 1000 m.
of altitude, it doesn't form forest.
The wood is easy to work. The leaves, fruits and bark of the
root has astringent properties.
glutinosa ( Aliso, Amieiro)
Aspect: Deciduous leaf
tree, that can reach until the 20 meters. The trunk, when
it is the small tree, is
grizzly-green and flat, then when it is mature it is dark green.
The young branches are sticky. The roots live associated with
bacterias of the floor and they fix the nitrogen of the air and
later on it is in the floor like fertilizer.
Leaves: Alternating, simple, oval, dark
doubly jagged, green margin for the face and clearer for the
back where they have some cowlicks of short hair in the base of
the armpit of some prominent right nerves. The leaves have 4-10
cm. long and 4-7 cm. wide and they are sticky when they are
Fruit: The feminine flowers, when they are
mature, are woody similar to a pineapple, initially they are
green then they become dark brown, they have about 30
millimeters long, they are similar to an egg and they contain
multitude of small pulled seeds that they persist in the
are monoics, the feminine ones are in inflorescences separated
from the masculine ones; the masculine ones are long,
cylindrical and straits catkins. Often contained in the terminal
buds, they are of dark purple in autumn and winter, dark green
in spring and they have 6-12 cm long, in clusters with 3-5
flowers. The feminine flowers are woody, in short groups of 1-6,
but later extended or pendulums and woody.
Applications: The wood is elastic and
slight, white and easy to work. The bark has tannins that are
used as astringent and to harden skins, it is also used to lower
Habitat: Botanical garden: Botanical garden
of APinguela, Galicia, where it is
abundant. It lives in riversides of rivers, streams and very
fresh places, because it needs a floor with a lot of humidity,
it doesn't resist the drought of the summer well. It can live in
very poor lands because their roots fix nitrogen of the air.
sativa (Chestnut tree, Castiñeiro)
Type: Deciduous leaf tree
-Leaf: Simple, alternating, big and
“lanceoladas” (10-25 cm. long, being able to reach 7 cm. wide),
with a petiole of up to 3 cm., the
borders are sawed with teeth “mucronados”. They are something
leathery, glabrous green for the face and clearer for the back
and with yellow flakes and 20-24 couples of almost parallel
-Flower and Fruit: They are born of the
axila of the leaves, they are narrow,
erect and yellowish spikes. Almost the whole spike is made up of
masculine flowers placed in groups that are born in the axila of
an oval “bráctea”. In the base of the spike they are the
contained feminine flowers from 1 to 5 in an
common involve. Chalice with 5-8 lobes and
7-9 pistils. It flourishes from May to June and the
insects help in their pollination. The fruit is the chestnuts
that are protected inside a spherical and hard dome (the
hedgehog of 2-5 cm. of diameter), yellowish green covered with
piercing thorns, opens up in 2-4 valves and in their inside
there are 1-3 chestnuts, with reddish, lustrous brown leathery
skin on the outside and shaggy on the inside. The chestnuts have
shaggy apex and the base of clearer
Medical uses: The chestnut tree has
astringent properties (it contracts the fabrics and it
diminishes the secretion of the mucous ones) that make it useful
in cases of diarrhea and affections of the mouth and the throat.
It is also calms the cough and the irritation of the pharynx.
It is used the bark and the leaves, although
some authors also include the catkins (flowers).
The consumption of chestnuts is
specially suitable for people with
arthritis and in diets for hypertension and sick heart.
Industrial use: The chestnut tree firewood
is not a good fuel, it removes a lot
of smoke and little heat. It has been used in basketwork cut in
fine ribbons, to manufacture barrels and to make sleeper of
railroad. It has also been used as cellulose source and of
tannins to harden.
Habitat: Botanical garden of A pinguela,
Galicia...., abundant (In Galicia it is cultivated for their
fruits and for their wood, the fruits were feeding base in
Galicia during a lot of time, serving as food for people and
Concheiro, Carroleiro, Noceiro)
tree. It can reach 25 meters high,
the trunk is grizzly (whitish), flat, it can have a great
thickness. The old species have the bark with vertical cracks.
It has many branches, very open of the same colour as the trunk.
Leaves.- Made up
with 5-9 “foliolos”, the terminal “foliolo” is bigger than the
other ones, the “foliolos” are “lanceolados” or some oval and
with the whole border. When they are born they are reddish brown
colour, they lose soon this colour and they are dark green for
the two faces.
feminine flowers are in solitary or small groups of 1-4, they
come out in the branches the same year forming a spike at the
end of the branch. The masculine flowers in greenish, hanging
catkins, with a great number of flowers, can appear isolated or
in groups of three in 2 year-old branches. The flowers come out
at the same time as the leaves.
Fruit.- It is an
oval drupe up to 5 cm. long, it has a greenish, flat cover and
covered with whitish glands. This cover has
an liquid (nogalina) that causes stains difficult to take
out. In the inside we find a very resistant, woody and very
rough cover with two valves. Inside there is a single seed. The
fruits mature at the end of the summer.
Habitat and applications.-
we can find it in most of cultivated Spain by its fruits, we can
see it in Galicia near rivers or in humid places, if we plant it
in dry places the growth is minor, it wants deep and humid
lands. The wood is hard and homogeneous,
it is very appreciated for joinery. The leaves are used
abundantly in popular medicine: for white flows or diarrheas
for their astringent qualities and to lower the quantity of
sugar. Leaves and fruits are used to
tint brown dark. The fruits constitutes
a very good food, very nutritious.
Pinus sylvestris (Pine, Piñeiro)
coniferous of about 30 m. high although sometimes
reaches the 40 m. At the beginning its top has a rounded form
and then it is more smoothed and with umbrella form.
Trunk: It begins exactly under the top and
it is often curved.
Bark: It is red or orange;
the lower part of the trunk is divided in big and dark
grizzly brown badges with deep blackish grooves.
Leaves (Needles): they measure from 3 to 8cm.
long and they are of grizzly or blue green color; they are
sometimes some volute. They are not very pointed and with
lightly jagged margin. There are two for each fascicle and most
remain from two to three years in the branches.
Flowers: The masculine ones bright are of a
clear yellow , concentrate next to
another in cones; the feminine flower cones go from red to the
purple; there are usually two in the superior end of the
“macroblasto”. The monoic flowering flourishes at the middle of
Pineapples: They measure up to 5cm. of wide
and 8cm of long; when they are unripe they are of greenish
color and, after two years of maturation, they becomr dark brown
and they open up giving in back their half-open flakes.
Habitat: They live preferably in slight and
dry, calcareous, oozy or sandy floors. In
mountain areas like repopulation pines.
In the botanical Garden of the IES "A Pinguela."
(white Poplar, Chopo, Choupo)
Characteristics: Decidius stout tree, heigh
up to 30m, in general something bent, grey white top and leaves
with the pure white back.
Trunk: Flat, whitish bark, with blackish
scars of old branches. Young branches and tomentosos buds.
Alternating, webbed or jagged leaves of green color in the
sheaf and almost white in the back. They are “tomentosas” in
the two faces and in the petiole. When maturing they are green
dark in the face and “tomentosas”white in
the back. Bigger leaves usually webbed-lobuladas, heart-shaped
base. Spray leaves rounded or oval,
lobe little, with less “tomento”. In autumn the coloration is
brown or yellowish.
Fruit: It is adry capsule that opens up
liberating seeds with a feather of hair to be dispersed by the
wind (the children like of playing with them because they look
like cotton pieces).
Distribution: In areas of fluvial valleys of
the center and the south of Europe, but planted as ornamental in
many other places and also in parks. It resists
well the drought whenever there is
humidity in the floor; it can support minimum of -15ºC and
maximum 40 ºC .
Habitat: Botanical garden of the I.E.S. A
Pinguela, it prefers humid floors that are flooded periodically,
deep sandy lands. It is very abundant in Galicia.
Populus nigra (Chopo, Choupo)
Characteristic: showy tree of about 30m of
height, with the high, convexed and generally roomy top, that
particularly in the old copies it has irregular and party
Trunk: generally of strong development, with
enough bulkinesses and fissures, habitually some bowed or
gnarled, with scarce but strong and leafy upward branches
already from scarce height of the floor.
Young branches and quite
soft buds, of clear brown color.
Leaves bud are dense and brown clear.
Leaves of the long sprays of about 5-9 cm
long, at the end of long petioles, of triangular profile, with
the thin and lengthened tip, with small teeth in the margin
directed towards. The leaves of the short shafts are generally
smaller. All the leaves when they appear they are reddish green,
acquiring a brilliant dark green tonality soon.
Distribution: In the nature, we can find
them in the big fluvial valleys of the center and the south of
Europe, but planted in many other places and also in parks.
Habitat: Botanical garden of the I.E.S. A
Pinguela, it prefers humid floors that are flooded periodically,
deep sandy lands . It is very
abundant in Galicia.
Prunus avium (Cherry tree, Cirdeira)
Type: Decidius tree of the family of the
rosy ones of until 20 m of high. Trunk of
reddish brown color whose bark comes undone in bands.
Leaves: they appear after the flowers,
oblong or oval with the jagged border, brilliant green and
glabrous face; pubescent back in the angles of the rib, flowers
of up to 3 cm. prepared in faces of 2 -6 on long peduncles.
Fruits: Fruits in drupe, of strong reddish
color. They appear in natural state as wild tree in many
European forests of medium mountain
and in the north of África and Asia. It flourishes between the
months of April and May.
Medicinal uses: therapeutic uses,
bronchitis, diarrhea, diuretic, sedative, hepatic dysfunctions,
integral of the slimming infusions.
Other uses and properties: the mature
cherries are used to improve the flavor of syrups and other
remedies. It is used in the industry for the conservation of the
The part that is used is mature and dry
peduncles, leaves, fruits.
Industrial uses: The cherry tree wood is
hard and appreciated in engraving and joinery. If it is used for
the fire, its smoke produces a very characteristic aroma.
Habitat: Botanical garden of the IES A
Pinguela . In Galicia it is very
Quercus pyrenaica (Oak,
Aspect: Oak (Rebollo) not very high that
rarely surpasses the 20 meters high, Its top is
irregular . It can break out again
abundantly from the root, for what sometimes forms extensive
surrounded trees with numerous sprouts. It has right or
irregular trunk with grizziy-brown
bark of little thickness, cracked lengthwise in the old copies.
It usually ramifies in abundance from little height.
Leaves: They are simple, alternating, with
short petiole, cracked in deep and regular lobes that often
arrive near the half nerve. They are of 6-16 centimeters long,
when beginning to develop they are covered for both faces of a
dense starry hair. They are of a green color in the face.
Flowers: The masculine flowers are small
with wrapped up divided in 5-8 “lacinias”and a variable number
of stamens. They are contained in lengthened and slack catkins
that hang in variable number of the branches. It flourishes in
May at the beginning of June.
Fruits: They are some acorns that are born
solitary or contained in 2 or 3 on very short small tails that
measure on 2 centimeters. They have hemispheric dome in thimble
form, with numerous flakes, not very prominent. The pulp of the
acorn is of bitter flavor. Their fruits mature for October or
Habitat: Botanical garden A Pinguela,
Galicia and in general in Spain. It is scarce in the dry
climates and it is raised in the hillsides and skirts of the
siliceous mountains. It prefers sandy texture soils and it
adapts very well to continental climates, supporting icy due to
their short period of vegetative development.
Utilities: Their wood is of little quality
and it is used for posts of railroad and to substitute to the
oaks where they lack these.
Quercus robur L;
Quercus Pedunculata (Oak,
Aspect.- It can
overcome 45 m high and it has a big, rounded top. Its trunk is
right, grizzly with white tonalities and the bark presents
Masculine flowers in hanging, green-yellowish and solitary
catkins or in group that leave in the branches of the previous
year. Feminine flowers in groups of 2-3 in the apex of a long
peduncle, surrounded of a reddish
brown scaly cover. It flourishes in April-May. The flowers are
separate but in the same tree.
mature in September and they fall in October-November. You not
mistake the acorns for the galls that are balls of the size of a
nut with picks or smaller rounded without picks, that they are
produced by the sting of an insect of the family of the
Cinípedos to make the setting, the tree develops a tumoral
fabric that will protect to the eggs of the insect.
Habitat: It is a tree climax in Galicia, it
requires oceanic humid climate. It usually is not starting from
the 1000 m. of altitude, it wants deep floors, lacking lime and
it supports the low temperatures well.
wood is hard, of small grain , very marked rings of growth, it
is hard and resistant to the rot. It was used for the railway
ties of the railroad, ships, casks, in structural part of the
buildings, furniture, parquets, and to burn well as firewood or
making with it vegetable coal.
The bark and the galls have abundant tannins,
for what they are used to harden skins. The fruits are an
excellent food for pigs and during the postwar period it was
used for human consumption (first they cooked to take
out their bitterness), they were
also used as substitute of the coffee.
The oaks can end up surpassing the 1000
leaves, bark and galls have abundant tannins, these they have a
strong power to be able to astringent, for this reason they were
used for: diarrheas, faringitis, hemorrhoids, varixes (it is
used in cooking for external use or like mouthwashes)
Salix caprea (Sallow, Salgueiro)
Aspect: Decidius bush of 5 meters high or
small tree of up to 10 meters. Their buds and secondary branches
are soft, thin, and with fluff and they are of a grizzly green
in their base.
Leaves: alternating and “pecioladas”,
measure from 4 to 12 centimeters long, for 6 centimeters wide.
Their limbo is elípitic and wide with the rounded base. The face
is green dark and some wrinkled, and the greenish gray back is
“tomentoso”, they also possess not very appreciable “estípulas”.
Flowers: they appear before the leaves, the
oval masculine catkins measure 3 centimeters long and they have
silver hairiness. During the pollination, they are of a pale
yellow and they contain an only fruit essence. The
feminine catkins are green and not
very showy; the ovaries flourish in spring.
Fruit: they mature in spring.
Habitat: Botanical Garden of the IES "A
Pinguela", In Galicia is very abundant.
It grows in wilderness, margins of roads and
forests or quarries although it can also appear with other trees
beside stagnated waters.
Decidius bush with a very dense and rounded glass, it can arrive
to the 5 meters high. The bark is very cracked and of dark brown
color. The branches when they are young they are green but soon
they become grizzly. The branches have a great quantity of
Compound, with 5-7 flakes in couple with a lone one at the end,
they are born faced in the branches of the year. They are of
greenish color and something shaggy for the back,
they have sawed margin.
flowers are very attractive of an intense or cream white colour,
they are small 4-5 millimeters of diameter but placed in a great
number of terminal inflorescences with all the flowers to the
same height, they are very fragrant. It flourishes in the
Spherical, fleshy, with an intense black colour, it has of 3-5
seeds in their interior. The fruits mature at the end of the
applications. - It wants fresh floors, being abundant
beside rivers or in riversite. It is cultivated as ornamental by
their beautiful and fragrant flowers. The fruits are used to
make desserts. The dry flowers put among the bed clothes to
avoid attacks of insects. The fruits when they are green they
are toxic and when they are mature they are eatable but the
seeds should be discarded that they are toxic. Their flowers in
cooking are diuretic. To combat the distemper of dogs they are
put a necklace of elder bills, the bills should be 9 or 11 so
that it provides effect (this remedy is broadly utilized).
baccata (Tile, Teixo)
Type: Tree that can reach from 10 to 15 m of
height, being frequently presented as bush.
Brown-reddish, thin and scaly bark. It is considered one
of the trees more long-lived of Europe.
Flowers: Spherical masculine inflorescence,
with 6-14 stamens. Rounded feminine
inflorescence, with a surrounded ovum of “brácteas”. In
the maturity the seed that is ovoid and of 6-7 mm. of longitude,
it is surrounded of a fleshy part of red color with a viscous
pulp that falls quicky.
Leaves: Soft needles of 2-4 cm. of
longitude. They are dark green in the face and green with two
yellowish bands in the back. Ovoid, small
yolks, of brown color. Dioic species.
Fruits: Fruits in berry or resemblances to
Uses: It possesses a very resistant wood to
the bleakness, having been used in the construction of fences.
It has also been used in the construction of barrels and in
joinery. It was used formerly to make arches because it isvery
Habitat: Botanical garden of the I.E.S. "A
Pinguela", in Galicia where it is
not very abundant (Laurel, Trevinca, Ancares, etc.).
platyphyllos (Linden, Tileira)
Aspect: It is a robust tree that can end up
measuring 30 meters or more of height,
it is of trunk right and hefty with grizzly, flat or cracked
bark, which is lengthwise in the age copies. Its top is wide and
ramosa of tight foliage that projects a very dense shade for the
almost horizontal disposition of the leaves. It frequently has
sprays of reddish or greenish colour.
Leaves: They are big widely oval or rounded
in heart form and something asymmetric in the base. They are of
an intense green color for the face and paleer green for the
back where they take some whitish hair. For the face they are
Flowers: They are small of creamy or
yellowish white color, very fragrant with wrapped up double of 5
sepals and free petals, the seconds, longer and more narrow,
opened up in star's form. They have a great number of free
stamens, or something soldiers in the base. It flourishes
starting from June.
Fruit: It is dry and no opened, ovoid and
traveled by 5 five longitudinal ribs and very shaggy, it has a
single cavity, and it contains of 1-3 seeds. They mature at the
end of the summer and during the autumn.
Habitat: Botanical Garden of the IES "A
Pinguela", Galicia, and great part of Europe, mainly in the
center and south. It is raised next to other trees in the fresh
forests. It is also given in rocky means.
Minor (Elm tree, Negrillo)
Type: Decidius tree of 15-20 m of height,
with the wide top, something oval, and with right and thick
trunk, of cracked bark with the years. Sprays with cork
bark , forming ribs more or less
Leaves: alternating, oval, with the unequal
base, doubly jagged or sawed. Make green intense, hairless but
rough to the tact, clearer and more pubescent back.
Nervure of the outstanding back.
Fruits: Flowers without
interest, greenish, prepared in groups it has more than enough
sprays of one year. They appear
in February-March. Fruit in “sámara”,
monospermo, with the next seed to the neckline of the wing.
The fruit matures before the leaves appear.
Medicinal use: the flowers have medicinal
Industrial uses: It is used to manufacture
sport articles, seats and linings of floors.
A Pinguela.". Abundant in
Apical: that it is in the tip or end
Acorn: fruit of some trees of the family
of the fabáceas. In an ovoid way, covered with a hard shell
finished by a hard caperuzo by which is together to the
Back: one of the two faces of the leaf.
Depending on the relative position of
this., one can say that it is the later, inferior
face or of behind. In most of the cases it is the paleest
and less flat face.
hard, armored, resistant. Of similar texture to the leather.
each one of the parts that form a compound leaf.
protuberance of the bark of the woody plants, built by a
fabric porous suberoso that allows the gassy exchange
between the atmosphere and the internal fabrics of the tree.
Limbo: it leaves wider and main of the
leaf. You can use this term to define the part wide distal
of other organs, like it is the case of the petals.
Lobe: portions of different size in
those that the discontinuous surface of the limbo is divided
acúmulo of conductive glasses of the limbo to
Petiole: it leaves
more narrow and it cuts of the leaf that serves as
nexus between the limbo and the leaf. Tail of the leaf for
which is linked to the shaft.
Peduncle: tail that sustains the flower
or the stingy fruit to the branch.
Pineapple: inflorescence of the
gimnospermas, of aspect esferoidal or conical. It contains
some mobile brácteas that allow the operation of the
structure reproductora and they house the pinenuts.
seed of the pine, housed in the feminine pineapples.
main nerve of the limbo to foliate.
dry fruit of some trees, as the ash-tree, with an only seed
in their interior.
Shell: it leaves more external of the
bark, laminated many times and of easy extraction.
Sheath: extension that recovers the base
of many leaves.
with short and soft hair, in the case of being dense, they
give to the tact a velvet sensation.
group of leaves, flowers or other organs in number bigger
than two that are inserted in the same knot in the shaft, to
the same height, in disposition more or less radial.
Yolk to grant asylum: fabric of quick
growth of the one that derive differentiated structures,
distributed by certain points of the surface of the shaft.
Webbed: with the nerves or willing lobes
moving away from the center, as the fingers very separated
from an open hand.
Wing: continuation to laminate or
lateral expansion of little grosor. They often appear in
some fruits, petioles and shafts. they
are also denominated this way to the lateral petals of the
flowers amariposadas of the leguminous ones.
The route begins in the Park of the Counts,
here many monfortinos come to walk so that they can enjoy the
landscape of the river, of the sources (example of non consuming
use ofwater), of the diversity of planted trees and of the
beautiful views that it offers us of Monforte.
To one of their sides we see one of the most
representative monuments in Monforte, El Colegio de Nuestra
Señora de la Antigua, also known as El Escorial Gallego, built
along the XVI and XVII centuries and whose facade is of
Renaissance style. At the moment it works like a school and on
the inside it shelters a museum in which we can enjoy pieces
so important as some of the paintings
of El Greco.
From this Park we also have a beautiful view
of the Torre del Homenaje, symbol of
the Feudalism in Galicia and of the power of the Counts of Lemos
in these lands. It possesses a height 30 meters and it was
lifted among the XIII and XV centuries. To their surroundings we
observe part of the old one the wall, the Monasterio de San
Vicente del Pino and the Palacio de los Condes, restored today
and transformed in State-owned Hotel.
The river Cabe crosses the city of Monforte
de Lemos and it is a tributary of the Sil for the right. It is
born to 960 meters of altitude in the parish of Foilebar (Sierra
of Oribio), in the city council of the Incio. It adopts an
address NL-SO that maintains during all
their course. It crosses the city councils of Incio, A
Pobra of Brollón, Boveda, Monforte of Lemos, Sober and Pantón.
It ends to 159 meters of altitude after a journey of 53 Km in
the limit among the parishes of Fronton (Pantón), Anllo (Sober)
and San Estevo of Rivas of Sil (Nogueira of Ramuín) although it
doesn't take a bath this parish. Their régime is pluvial
arriving to the maximum flow between December and April. Their
main tributaries are the Mao, Cinsa and Ferreira for the right,
and the Saa and Santa for the left.
In the Earth: Fourth three parts of the
planet are covered for water, but the human being only has
access to a minimum quantity because 97.2% of the water that
there is in the terrestrial surface it is salted and it forms
the oceans. 2.8% of the water of the planet is only sweet and of
this 77% is icy, 22% is under the earth and 1% of the total is
only forming the rivers, lakes, interior seas and humidity of
the floor, being available easily for the earthly life,
included the man.
We can´t forget that it is not rightly
distributed, because in our planet there are surplus areas, as
the Nordic countries, and deficit areas, as the African arid
Water is the most abundant chemical compound
in our planet where is essemtial for the maintenance
It is formed by an oxygen atom and two atoms
of hydrogen united by connections hydrogen. The pure water is a
colorless, odourless and insipid liquid. Their freezing point is
0º and their boil point is 100º c.
It can be in solid, liquid or fumes phase. It is a very strong
solvent and it is responsible for the matter transfer on and
below the surface of the earth.
Water is source of life and
a all the life depends on it. It
constitutes 70% of our corporal weight. We need water to
breathe, to lubricate our eyes, to desintoxica our bodies, to
maintain our temperature...
The human being can live more than two weeks
without eating but he cannot survive more than 3 or 4 days
without drinking. It also influences in other important areas
for our life like the industry, watering, electricity
generation, recreational activities, means of transport,
The plants would be unable to produce their
food or growing without it. It is also the means where most of
the biological reactions take place.
Not consumptive use of water:
water that is used and returned to the
environmet and its characteristics are not altered. It is used,
for example, water that takes place
in the own current, the hydroelectric energy generation, the
sailing, the improvement of the quality of the water, the
aquaculture and to recreational ends.
Consumptive use of
water: water that it is
used and returned to the environment with some characteristics
that do not let their later use. For example, we find the water
of domestic use and of supply, the water coming from the
industry and the one that comes from the watering that can carry
payments and fertilizers.
It is also necessary to distinguish among:
that constitute a necessity impossible to satisfy without the
use of fresh water. They are
essential for the life and the human activity. It is what
happens to the urban and industrial supplies, the irrigable,
ecological and environmental character ones.
that can be satisfied temporarily with spare flows, but they
don't constitute a necessity impossible to satisfy without the
use of the fresh water. Among the secondary uses we can make an
appointment the energy ones, for the sailing and the
From the point of view of the main utility
of water in human activities, we can
distinguish in way general six uses: urban and industrial,
energy, for the sailing, recreational and the one that is
dedicated to satisfy the ecological and environmental
- Urban and industrial uses: it is water
dedicated to satisfy the demand of the cities and other
populations for domestic, commercial and public consumption...
The urban waste waters can be classified,
according to the different ones poured that they compose them,
water. They are formed by kitchen waters and white waters of
water. They come from the human being's defecation.
Regarding the industrial supplies, the water
is used for its incorporation to the finished products, as agent
of fumes or refrigeration and as factor for the cleaning.
Agricultural uses: the irrigable one is the
biggest plaintiff and consumer of the water. From precipitation
in form of water or snow only a part of it becomes useful
run-off (outside or underground), the rest gets lost for
evaporation, perspiration and incorporation of water to the
Energy uses: the hydroelectric resources do
not produce any contamination
although it is necessary to keep in mind the environmental and
landscape impact that produce the creation of infrastructures
for their use. The hydroelectric use doesn't also produce
physical consumption of the water (not consumptive use).
We can add that the water is also used in
thermal and nuclear centrals as coolant in the condensation
Sailing: we need to have beds under adapted
conditions hydraulicses and when the natural flow of a navigable
fluvial current is insufficient to allow the traffic of crafts
you can appeal to the use of regulation reservoirs that provide
the necessary flows. Now then, although the sailing doesn't
imply a consuming use of the water, the necessity of maintaining
minimum flows for this end it supposes a restriction for the
employment of the water in other consumptive uses.
Recreational uses: as the level of life
increases the demand of the hydraulic resources increases for
recreational ends. The reservoirs and their surroundings play an
important role like recreation spaces (practice of nautical
Ecological and environmental necessities: it
is supposed that it is necessary to conserve the circulating in
a natural way in dry periods as minimum flows. From the
ecological point of view the minimum flow should assure the
biological balance of the natural aquatic ambience and the
physical balance (erosion), to avoid the stagnation of the water
and the infection focuses, to dilute the dispersed
contaminations sufficiently, to conserve the aesthetics of the
natural landscapes and the necessity of recharge of aquifers to
make possible the sailing, the recreational use...
We continue our route skirting the river for
the new walk that it has made to both margins, until arriving at
the Pier passing above the Puente Viejo (Old Bridge) that
according to the history was built in the XVI century on the
foundations of a Roman bridge and that it possesses six
semicircular arches, covered two of them. To our left we see the
Convent of the Clarisas that one of the most important museums
of Sacred Art in Spain. In this pier it is where formerly the
monfortinos washed their clothes and where a small prey existed
being also here the remains of an old mill, the first of the
numerous of our route. The walk has been changed and we have
marked that it has been deepened in the bed of the river to
avoid floods. Along the journey tubes of drainages of the sewer
system and of houses can be appreciated and they pour out
directly to the river. In abundant rainy season the water of the
sewer system cannot be able to absorb the whole flow that
circulates for the streets and this pours into the bed of the
How do the rivers defend themselves of the
The natural cycle of the water has a great
purification capacity. The rivers defend of the contamination
for their own dynamics that allows them to dilute of continuous
the pollutants. But this same easiness of regeneration of the
water, and its apparent abundance, makes it be the habitual
drain in which we throw the residuals taken place by our
activities: fecal and domestic animals remains, pesticides,
chemical waste, heavy metals, solid residuals of the mines and
industry, phosphates of detergents, etc., they are in quantities
bigger or smaller and many waters are polluted until the point
of making them dangerous for the human, and harmful health for
The quantity of oxygen in the water is an
important parameter to analyze when we want to know the level of
contamination of a flow of water, because it expresses the
capacity of the water to be regenerated. The dissolved oxygen
usually expresses as percentage with regard to the available
maximum in each case. The maintenance or not of the life of the
organisms in the aquatic ambience depends of it. It comes from
the exchange between the atmosphere and the course of water in
question, as well as of the fotosintetic
The clean superficial waters are usually
saturated of oxygen, whith is fundamental for the life. If the
level of dissolved oxygen is low it indicates contamination with
organic matter, septicización, bad quality of the water and
inability to maintain certain forms of life.
The main points of consumption of the
water are :
Domestic and supply: in this section we not
only include the water used at home, but also the water
characteristic of the municipal activity, of collective and of
trade uses and the water lost in the systems of supply that it
supposes an important percentage in many cases.
Industrial: The use of the water for the
industries is consumptive, because they incorporate it to the
product manufactured or they transform it for the addition of
residuals, impeding its later use.
The irrigable one: it is one of the most
outstanding sectors as for consumption of water. The use of
water in this sector is usually consuming because the use of
fertilizers and pesticides make the returned water to the
environment contain strange elements.
A minute of reflection: you think of the
quantity of water that you use, since you get up until you go to
bed: for your hygiene, the food, to wash the clothes... could
you make something to diminish their consumption?
We follow our road going by the rear part of
the Multiusos Center and crossing the bridge of the
circumvallation arriving to the Fluvial
club that is an obliged appointment of the monfortinos in the
summer. Here, we can enjoy a bathin the pools or in the river,
to practice different types of sports or simply to take
advantage of the lunchroom that there exists in the shade of the
trees. This is a good example of the recreational use that we
can make with the landscape that provides us water of the river
and of the non consumptive use of it, for example, because the
water of the pools can be recyclied.
The hydrological cycle: it describes the
continuous movement of the water on, in and under the
terrestrial surface. It is the succession of stages that crosses
the water when it passes from the atmosphere to the Earth and
return to the atmosphere: the heat of the Sun evaporates the
water of the terrestrial surface (seas, rivers, lakes, lagoons).
The alive organisms that inhabit the Earth also evaporate water
like product of theirs metabolism. This water in form of vapour
ascends and it forms the clouds; which are pushed by the winds
and with the collaboration of the vegetation it cools down
enough so that it precipitates in rain or snow form. It is a
process of permanent transport that owes you fundamentally to
Sun that provides the energy to elevate the water (evaporation)
terrestrial graveness that makes that the condensed water
descends (precipitation, surface run-off).
Riverside vegetation: in the riversides and
in flooded areas a series of well-known vegetation is developed
as “ripisilva” or forest in gallery.
Two strata are very defined black poplars ,
alders trees, sallows... they are the most frequent trees in the
top tree-covered stratum. Among the species that grow in the
herbaceous stratum: ivies, blackberries, Honeysuckle of the
forests (lonicera periclymenum), Tamaráceas (Tammus communis),
and several types of ferns.
The forest in gallery usually only occupies a
narrow fringe in the margins of the rivers. It happens that the
high requirements of humidity that most of the “ripícola”
blossom has and for the intense use that the man makes of the
riverside lands for different cultivations, given their good
These forests, in spite of their reduced
width, complete important ecological functions, because they
regulate the temperature of the water limiting the heatstroke
that it receives , they hold the margins of the riverside -
especially when there is rise - and they constitute an ambience
in which they live a varied aquatic and amphibious fauna.
Starting from the Club Fluvial the road along
the margin of the river is closed that´s why we should go along
the general road that takes to Lugo until passing the Virgin's
Bridge and about 200 meters later take the street to the left
until arriving to a tarred road that it will carry us until
At very little distance there is the Presa
deVillanueva or Presa del Sierra,
meeting-place to enjoy the beauty of the place and of the waters
of the river. This spot supposes an alternative place for a lot
of people that look for a nearer contact to the
nature while having a swim in
summer. Here we find an old building that served as generator to
produce electricity. In this area they are three sources that in
the pastwere used by people of the area, but at the present time
it would be necessary to analyze their potability because they
can be polluted with pavwments, purines or remains of fecal
waters coming from the small exploitations and near houses.
A portion of the water of the precipitations,
after carrying out a course for the surface, filters in the
earth and it incorporates to the
underground waters. The quantity of water that it filters in a
region it depends on the climate, of the permeability of the
rocks, of the vegetation and of the inclination of the land.
After a slow descending course through the pores and fissures,
the water arrives to an area where it cannot continue because
the pores are already full with water. When the rock where the
water is stored it allows it to move with easiness they are
formed aquifer that are the only
exploitable reservations of underground waters. The superior
limit of the aquifer is the phreatic level that fluctuates in
function of the recharge and the losses. The rock portion whose
pores are full with water is the saturation area and above it
there is the aireación area that only contains occasionally
water. When the underground water intercepts with the surface of
the land it is formed a spring that when it doesn't flow clearly
and it leaves dispersed it is denominated oozes.
Energy uses of the water
they are clean energy only limited by the magnitude and location
of the natural flows; among them we find: hydraulic, sea, eolic,
sun and geothermal energy. Its impact on the environment is not
comparable with the produced one for the non renewable energy
(coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear..).
it is the energy that is obtained of the fall of the water from
certain height to an inferior level what causes the movement of
hydraulic wheels or turbines. The water when arriving to the
turbine makes it rotate on its axis that crawls in its movement
to the electric generator that transforms the mechanical force
in electricity.. The water is
returned to the river under the conditions in that it was taken,
so it can be used below for another power station located waters
again or it stops consumption.
Advantages: renewable, clean,
Inconveniences: the possible production
fluctuations according to the time of the year.
A historical touch: already the old ones
Roman and Greeks took advantage of the energy of the water to
mill the wheat with wheels. The hydroelectricity had a lot of
importance during the Industrial Revolution. It impelled the
textile and the leather industries and the shops of construction
of machines at the beginning of the XIX century. Although the
machines of vapor were already sophisticated, the coal was
scarce and the wood was not very satisfactory as fuel. The
hydraulic energy helped to the growth of the new industrial
cities that were created in Europe and America. Later, when it
could have coal, the hydraulic wheels were substituted by the
The ascents and descents in the level of the sea caused by the
action of the gravitate forces of the Sun and the Moon have been
taken advantage by the man for the energy production for many
the eolic energy has been used from the antiquity to move for
the sea or to produce work, like in the mills. The conversion of
eolic energy in electricity is carried out by means of
airgenerators in those the rotor, worked by the wind that impels
the crosses, is connected to an axis that makes rotate an
electric generator by means of a system of engagements.
it can be used in an active or passive way.
A hothouse, the orientation of the housing or their insulating
capacity are passive forms of capturing the solar energy.
In the active systems, solar badges that allow to heat a fluid
(water or air) are used and transfer
this heat to a storage system that supplies the consumption when
it is necessary.
it takes advantage of the increase of temperature in depth in
volcanic areas or with high geothermal gradient. The water of
the underground, that reaches its point of boil to little depth,
can be directly transported to the big ones central generating
of electricity installed in the surface.
Non renewable energy:
energy resource formed inside the Earth during very lingering
geologic periods as the coal, petroleum and natural gas whose
intensive use could end in its exhaustion to half or long time.
Coal: it is
the used fossil fuel. It is of the accumulation of vegetable
remains followed by a quick burial that establishes anaerobic
conditions for the bacterial reactions that transform this
remains in coal.
Petroleum and natural gas:
originated by the accumulation in very deep marine funds of the
remains of marine plankton. Under conditions anaerobics and in
way gradual this remains are transformed in hydrocarbons, first
in solid substances with big molecules (polishes and asphalts)
and later in liquid petroleum and gas.
it is based on the generation of heat by means of the fission of
the atomic nuclei of the uranium and the later transformation of
the heat in electric power.
About the history of
do you know when electricity was
first used in Monforte? Already in 1844 the first apparatuses of
illumination of petroleum, the oil lamps, began to substitutethe
old candles of suet, but it didn't go up to 1894-95 when it
carried out the installation of posts and material for the
operation of the electric light in our city, what supposed a
great advance in the well-being of the monfortinos. The used
energy came from the prey Vilanova that used the water coming
from the river Cabe, through a generator, to transform it into
You continue the road until arriving to the
Golf course, sport that begins to take many followers in the
area, which rebounds positively in the economic sense. Here you
can enjoy a sport in full nature and of the beautiful landscapes
that the river leaves us to its
step. It is necessary to keep in mind that in this area there is
not shortage of water, situation that supposes a problem in many
other areas, mainly in the south of Spain. To maintain the
grass under perfect conditions a great quantity of water is
needed, but we could be contributing to not to waste the water
with the use of white waters for the watering of the field
(water coming from the domestic use that only need a small
purification). It is necessary to remember that the requirements
of water dedicated to the human consumption are not the same
ones that those dedicated to the agricultural watering or the
cleaning of streets.
Fish and other
The river is also a food source. Along the
route they are areas where it is habitual to see fishermen. The
typical species that are fished in this area are:
trutta fario): common trout. It usually measures from 15 to 25
cm in mountain rivers but it can
reach 1 m in big rivers and preys. It possesses some
characteristic as red spots in the back, and a fatty fin near
the flow fin. It feeds on insects of all kind, fish, frogs,
other smaller trouts...
It can live in any river that is clean and
with currents, so that they need waters with high oxygen
concentration. The eutrofización (rot of algae in the preys)
kill them. It makes their it spawns when the river grows, for
what overcomes the river until looking for a suitable place
(many times it is not able to because it meets with
power-stations and preys that it cannot avoid or they don't
possess stairways) and these places are usually places with
little current where they can dig among the sand and to make a
small well where it is rubbed pressing the part of under the
belly to leave the eggs; next the
male fertiles them and the female covers them.
This animal is threatened by the
contamination, the poisonings, the preys and power-stations, the
not well made repopulations and the overfishing.
(Chondrostoma duriense Coelho): also well-known as “boga” or
“pepe”. It generally measures about 15cm although it can arrive
up to the 50cm. It feeds on bugs of the river, small amphibians,
eggs, flies and mosquites. It is a very gregarious fish and the
fishermen use baits of food so that they come in big quantities
and they can catch them easily. They usually inhabit the tracts
means of the river and as the most of the fish it is vulnerable
for the introduction in our rivers of exotic species as the
carp, for the small power-stations construction and preys, the
extraction of arid, the wrong use of the waterings in summer
that dry our rivers and for the increase of the contamination.
carolitertii): also well-known as “chacho”, “cachizo”, “kardo”.
It has lengthened body, big head and subterminal mouth. Its
colour changes according to the river in which it lives. Their
fishing is very easy, even for beginners. They don't usually
pass of 30cm and they possess many thorns. They are very
abundant but vulnerable for the introduction of the “Lucio” and
the American Perch.
With regard to the community of birds that
depend on the river, a singular bird is the Martin Fisherman
(Alcedo atthis) that possesses a big head, often with crest.
Their body is short and plump, and its paws and small feet. Most
has the short line. It presents a beautiful plumage, of blue,
yellow, white iridescent colors.
It lives with their couple, but it is not
sociable with their fellows. It makes underground nests and it
lays white eggs. It generally builds their nest in sandy land,
near the bank of a river or an aquatic habitat. It digs with
their pick a tunnel with an extremely narrow entrance. The
tunnel is serpentine, because it avoids the stones and roots in
its itinerary, and bowed up, to avoid the grown of the river. In
the final part it carries out a wide compartment where it builds
the nest, the one that forms with the thorns of the fish that
once it has eaten, reveal, after digesting the soft parts.
Aquatic Grackle (Cinclus cinclus) and the
Lavandera Cascadeña (Motacilla cinerea) are also abundant
because they are typical of areas of streams and rivers and
whose feeding is based in insects, spineless aquatic, crabs and
In areas of waters calms we find anátidas
(Anass platyrhynchos), (Aythya ferina), (Aythya fuligula),
(Fulica atra) and the Real Heron (Ardea cinerea) that depend on
the masses of water.
The wild mammals,
are some of the most unknown creatures and fewer studied of the
Animal Kingdom, maybe this is due to their suspicious character
of the men.
Most of the species have become night and
rarely you see them for the day, to
part that their senses of the smell and hearing are very
developed and to the smallest interference suspicion they
disappear. In spite of all this, it is known that they are
there, because there are sings that accuses them like prints,
excrements and remains of food.
Many of our mammals have disappeared of wide
areas due to the deterioration of their biotope and to the
competition of the foreigner's brought animals, as the American
Mink that has displaced and finish with many autochthonous
animals in the areas that it has colonized.
An animal that is seriously danger of
disappearance of our rivers is the Otter (Lutra lutra) that
lives in very clean waters. To see it is very difficult, but
noticing well their prints can be seen by the margin of the
river and mainly to find their excrements that are very dark, of
small size and they are characterized to remove a strong scent
to fish, their favorite food.
As predators also
there are: the fox (Vulpes vulpes), “mustélidos”, the “gineta”
(Genetta genetta) and the badger (Meles meles).
With the exception of this last, one they feed on
micromammalians and rodents like the rat of common water
Among the mammals it highlights the presence
of the boar (Sus scofra) with high population density.
In the community of anphibious we have the
triton (Triturus spp), the salamander (Salamander salamander),
the “sapito comadrón” (Alytes obstetricans), the “sapo pintoxo”
(Dicoglossus galojanoi), the common toad (Comic comic) and the
green frog (Frog perezi).
Among the reptiles the
“lagarto arnal” (Lacerta lepida), the “lagarto das silvas”
(Lacerta schreiberi), the Galician small lizard (Podarcis
bocagei) and the “lagartija de las rocas” (Hispanic Podaris).
How is the
geology of the area?
The Valley of Lemos is a depression of
tectonic origin of the Tertiary that arose as consequence of the
deformation of the Galician central part during this period. It
is a smoothed surface with a half altitude of 300 m. The
depression of Lemos is formed by sandy and loamy lands with the
southwestern exception where granite
prevails. This fact explains the easiness adapting of the floor
for the formation of the depression that becomes a basin of
reception of detritic material among those that highlight the
red clays and the formation of fluvial terraces. The origin of
the depression surely owes itself to a tectonic reactivation by
the middle of the Tertiary.
When going by this zona we have notice the
landscapes that are drawn in the Barrioncas, jousts from behind
of the field of Golf, where you can appreciate the geology of
the Valley of Lemos, with a sedimentary basin stuffed with
materials of the Tertiary and Quaternary Age. The materials of
the Tertiary Age don't possess great permeability due to their
great clay proportion and they are recovered by materials of the
Quaternary one that possess higher grades of permeability and
that they serve as protection in front of the direct entrance of
the pollutants in the aquifers. The great quantity of clay that
there is in the area could be exploited economically, like it is
the case of a ceramic factory that there is in the area. This
red and green clay characteristic it is classified as “Formacion
Iris of Monforte”.
In front we can appreciate a hillside
restored with low vegetation and some chimneys that belong to
the old drain of Monforte that was closed and sealed recently.
The outdoors location of this drain was extremely negative due
to the vicinity to the river (although it doesn't seem it they
continue arriving leached that they come from it to the river)
and for the scarce permeability of the land.
Beside the Golf field there is a small
spreading public field and to its left a path that takes until
the “Muiño da Ana” that was operative until
not long ago and that it possesses a prey that stored
the indispensable water for its operation. From the mill you
arrive at the field of the fiest of Ribasaltas that is used as
an eating area during the rest of the year. With the arrival of
the good time, people take advantage to take a bath or to make
It deserves to visit the romanic temple of
San Pedro de Afora, of the XII-XIII century whose facade is
later, XVII S, time to which belongs the paintings
that adorn the vault of the apse.
of taking advantage of the energy of the water: the Mills
You know that.... The operation of the
mills is so interesting as primitive.
Usually, the millers reached an agreement for the day of the
mill. The water coming from the stream was guided by a stone
construction until the cube (of an approximate depth 3 meters).
Once full the cube, the flume opened up from the mill room and
the power of the water was transmitted by a mechanism to the
stones of the mill, stones that have cylindrical form,
approximately of a meter of radius, with a hole in the central
part for where the axis that moves them enters. The miller
placed the grain to mill, wheat, barley, trenches, rye or corn
in the chute that is located above the stones, for the later
part. The grain falls little by little among the stones and for
the revolvable movement of the same ones it goes being crushed.
If what is milled is wheat, the flour goes going by a sifter and
for some sieves so that it leaves clean. For
an part it separates the flour and for other the one
saved. This last one was used for food of animals and to cure
illnesses or to alleviate them. If what was wanted was integral
bread the one saved and the flour was obtained together, being
the blackest bread.
Periodically the miller should
remove the stones to chop them, that is
to say to recompose the grooves that have worn away by the use.
The quantity of mill that you toward every year
was also controlled. The mills were
respectful industries with the environment, ecological a hundred
per hundred. The cleaning of the mill and their dependences were
fundamental to cause good impression and also because a portion
of the flour was for human consumption, transforming it into
bread or in sweet. It is necessary to keep in mind that years
ago, when people lived isolated, the mills became on the dot of
social encounter and in the place where you knew what passed in
From the spreading area you pass below the
general highway and below the railroad bridge, beside this
bridge there is a construction that was used to pump water for
the machines of vapor in the deposit of the RENFE of Monforte.
This hut possessed a motor that pushed the water until this
deposit located 2 Km.
To remember that the railroad had a great
importance in the development of Monforte until half-filled of
the XX S.
Then you pass below the bridge of the
highway, where there is a source that leaves one of the pillars
exactly, and in this place it also leaves the general drainage
of Ribasaltas, causing the contamination of the river and bad
scents in the dry season. You ascends again to the bridge, you
cross and catch the road that there
is to our right that will carry us until Freixo.
How is the water
Contamination of the water takes place when
it has lost its natural conditions
and, therefore, it does not possess the characteristics of its
natural state. As a result of the contamination, the water can
suffer changes in its color and composition, product of the
quantity of dirt that arrives to it (residuals of the homes,
detergents, petroleum, pesticides or nuclear waste). These
wastes alter their flavor, density, purity, etc..
Different pollutants of the water exist. The
most common are the waste waters and the residuals coming from
are those waters that transfer domestic waste of the city. The
existence of a bigger number of houses implies a bigger number
of people, that which generates a higher volume of waste waters
that transports organic matter of waste, abundant in phosphates.
In the waters there are bacterias whose
function is to degrade the waste. When these are moderated, the
bacterias are able to disintegrate them without difficulty, on
the other hand when they increase, the bacterias are not able to
carry out their work and the waters are muddled slowly. This
bears to that it diminishes the light and the algae cannot carry
out the photosynthesis, that that in turn brings as consequence
the death of many fish and algae. For oxygen lack these
organisms begin to break down, they leave to the bottom and it
goes being formed a thick layer of organic material in
fermentation, incompatible with the life of the aquatic alive
Another polluting factor of the waste
waters is the presence of parasites, bacterias and virus. The
dangerous thing is that this water, that forms part of a river
or channel, can be used for irrigable. This way,
this microorganisms are deposited in
the foods that waste away causing a risk for the health. Some
illnesses that can be caused in this way are the cholera,
typhoid fever, dysentery, etc.
Residuals coming from industries:
The waters that drag residuals of industries are beared of a
great diversity number of polluting agents. Some of these they
. Residuals of detergents: these are
eliminated and they are integrated to the waters of the rivers,
where they can destroy many types of aquatic life.
. Mineral residuals and metallic salts:
these waste can end up being
polluting agents in the rivers and to cause big damages in the
distribution and quantity of flora and fauna. Its presence in
the waters of the seas, makes that the pollutants concentrate on
some species that live in the place, without causing them the
death, but the toxic residuals can arrive at the man, if this it
consumes this organisms.
. Derived of the
petroleum: these residuals have different sources and they
arrive to the waters in different ways. For example: the
water of the rains washes the streets and it drags remains of
tar, oils and fuels, those which finally will stop to the
rivers. The residuals go forming a thin or thick layer and of
this they go coming off certain toxic substances which go
intoxicating the plankton, fish and the diverse aquatic
organisms. In the cases in that the petroleum is eliminated in
big quantities in accidental form or not for the ships (remind
the case Prestige) it is formed a dense layer on the waters,
called “oil spill” . This layer
impedes the oxygenation of the waters and again the destruction
. Agricultural products: constituted by the
residuals of the animals and certain chemical compounds, they
are used as insecticide and fertilizers. When this type of
substances is used in an uncontrelled way, they can end up
destroying certain type of animals and vegetable, breaking the
natural balance and harming the upper animals a lot. This
pollutant type deposites the organism, and in some cases it
doesn't cause the death, but yes malformations, little
The riverside vegetation, ferns, and some
centennial cheesnuts trees accompanies
us on the road until arriving at Freixo. We unfortunately also
here find many remains of garbage (plastic, containers and even
We continue skirting the river and we can see
the station of pumping of water of Monforte and a channel of
water in front that it pours to the river the surplus that there
takes place. In front of the houses of the town the Muiño of
Freixo that counts us according to its owner see he has
intention of restoring, and that it is in quite good
The road will drive us until the “Prey of the
Company" prey of regulation of the irrigable one of the Valley
of Lemos, water that has as end the irrigable of the lands and
its use for our consumption.
A little before arriving to the prey it is
necessary to take a path to our left (to cross the small bridge
that there is on the watering channel) and you begin the
ascension. This road has been recovered by the youths that came
to participate to the Working Field in summer and that they
cleaned the vegetation that made it impassable in some areas.
During the itinerary, you can enjoy the views of the Valley of
Reigada and Remoín, of the vegetation, of the beautiful
landscapes of the mount Cornao and of the call
it Pena do Corvodo (located to the
right). This lands were inhabited by
pre-romanesque cultures and there are numerous Castros and other
vestiges for the area. An example is the Castro of O Cornao that
is above Pena do
To notice where the mimosas are: Doesn't it
call the attention the frondage with which they grow? Is it seen
that they don't leave space so that another type of plants grows
where they are? Is a typical plant of the area?
Mimosa: scientific name Acacia
dealbata. It is very frequent, so
much that lately it has become a plague that competes with the
autochthonous plants and it ends up displacing them. It is
originated of Australia and it
was introduced as ornamental plant. In it emphasizes the
attractive and fragrant yellow flowers that flourish from
January to February. It is considered as invader plant because
it reproduces with a lot of easiness and their roots are able to
pass all kinds of obstacles. As it reproduces so well and with
the small plants growing some next to other, it does
not leave space so that the rest of
plants can grow and with supreme speed they go colonizing all
One of the characteristics of our forests is
the great diversity of arboreal species that they compose it.
Besides the chestnut tree or the oak, many other trees are
inserted depending on the altitude and of the climate: pines,
poplars, walnuts, alder trees, maples, hazel trees... These are
examples of that diversity that has been traditionally utilized
to extract multitude of useful resources to the man. The last
decades have seen, however, how a part of this botanical wealth
disappeared substituted by strange species, looking for an
exclusively timber productivity incompatible with the ecological
balance. Example of this is the eucalyptus, of quick growth and
timber productivity. From the ecological point of view the
substitution of autochthonous forest for monoespecific
repopulations with exotic trees is one of the
most serious environmental problems
with those that many regions in these moments face.
Continuing the ascension the murmur of the
river is listened and accompanies us on our road. You can enjoy
from the height of beautiful landscapes, rocky blooming, oaks
arrays that protect us of the sun, models of isolated pines,
heaths, “xestas”, “ericáceas”... We will also find two natural
sources in the road. This path leads directly to the parish of A
Parte, almost opposite of the Church, and from here you
begins to lower for our right until
arriving to the place where the San Mateo takes place. You can
enjoy the beauty of the landscape here and of the joining of two
rivers, the Mao and the Cabe.
Very near (taking a road that leads to the
houses that we see to our left) one
can enjoy a singular geologic pleat.
After crossing the stone bridge that crosses
above the river Cabe, you take the asphalted hint that it is of
front and you continue the journey going by the Mill O Penedo,
in Remoín. You continue another track skirting to the river,
passing below the Pena do Corvo and of the Castro of O Cornao,
beautiful and dense vegetation.
This path goes until the derivation prey and from it, you
continue along the road that accompanies to the left margin of
the channel of irrigable of Monforte until the amusement area of
Administration of water
resources at national level
National Hydrological Plan
The objectives of this plan are that there
should exist enough water to satisfy the demands, to balance
the sectoral and regional development and to increase the
readiness of water, at the time that the quality is protected
and its use is limited in a rational and agreed way with the
One of the problems that would bear this
would be the construction of reservoirs with the consequent
environmental impact, destroying numerous forests with their
populations and forms of life and flooding important natural
From the point of view of the sustainable
development the National Hydrological Plan should lean on in
concepts like saving, efficiency,
return and recycled and the combined exploitation of underground
and superficial waters.
Law of Waters 1985
With it, it passed of the idea of increasing
the wealth of our country fomenting the use of the water (mainly
from the agricultural point of view), to the idea of protection
of a scarce resource. At the same time they declared of public
domain the entirety of the continental waters, both much
superficial and underground.
The return journey locates us again in the
recreational area of Ribasaltas and by means of agricultural
lands (a road fasther away from the river) we will arrive at the
street of the Morín, and then along the road we will arrive at
the Fluvial Club and from here we will go behindthe Convento de
las Clarisas (left margin) to the Malecón and from it to the
beginning of the route the Parque de los Condes.
This route also has the possibility to make
it for sections or to go by car or by bicycle up to where it
interests us, the recreational area of Ribasaltas or from the
prey of the company, they are two good tracts if we want to
divide the route.
MAP OF THE ROUTE
“The Mills”, TREKKING
DIDACTIC UNIT: The
Ramón Casanova Otero y Ángela Rodríguez González.